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Table 2 Parameters (exogenous) used in the model

From: Optimization of energy storage and system flexibility in the context of the energy transition: Germany’s power grid as a case study

Parameters (exog.)DescriptionUnits
demandtHourly demandGW
renewableEnergytHourly total renewable generation (wind+PV)GW
baseloadEnergytHourly baseload generation (nuclear, coal, run-of-the-river, biomass)GW
gasPeakMaximum peak production allowed for natural gasGW
gasMinimumMinimum generation from natural gas at any given timeGW
pumpedHydroPeakMaximum peak production allowed for pumped hydroGW
costPerkWyrsAnnualized costs for each storage technology€/kW-yr
enpoRatiosEnergy-to-power ratio of storage technologies
selfDischargesSelf-discharge for each storage technology
roundTripEffsRoundtrip efficiency of each storage technology
maxImportMaximum total yearly importsGWh
maxExportMaximum total yearly exportsGWh
maxImportHourMaximum allowed hourly importGW
maxExportHourMaximum allowed hourly exportGW
priceExportCost of exporting electricity€/GWh
priceImportCost of importing electricity€/GWh
priceGasCost of natural gas€/GWh