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Table 1 Measures to cut shipping CO2 emissions

From: Shipping and the Paris climate agreement: a focus on committed emissions

Category Measure
Hull Design Vessel size, hull shape, light-weight materials, air lubrication, resistance-reduction devices, ballast water reduction, hull coating
Power and propulsion system Hybrid power, power system machinery, propulsion efficiency devices, waste heat recovery, on-board power demand
Alternative fuels Biofuels, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Alternative energy sources Wind-power, fuel cells, cold ironing, solar power
Operation Speed optimisation, capacity utilization, voyage optimisation, other operational measures
  1. Source: Based on Bouman et al. [30]