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Table 5 Cost assessment specifications. Ref [1]: [73], [2]: [72], [3]: [9], [4, 34]. * A technical lifetime of 80,000 h is assumed for ‘low temperature water electrolysis PEM’ with a utilisation factor of 90%

From: Comparing negative emissions and high renewable scenarios for the European power system

TechnologyLifetimeCAPEXFO&MVO&MNotes
Biomass-non-CCS. Ref (1)40170038.43.26CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Biomass-CCS (1)40300061.45.8CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Geothermal heat (1)3026131050.32CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Hydro (1)55265016.80.16CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Natural Gas-non-CCS (1)30640152.31CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Natural Gas-CCS (1)30150034.32.78CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Nuclear (1)6047001057.8CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Oil (1)2091317.60.71CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Other RES & Wave (1)80197523.50.1CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Solar Photovoltaic (2)3016404.2CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Concentrated Solar Power (1)25307500.1CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Solids Fired-non-CCS (1)40160025.62.4CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Solids Fired-CCS (1)40320060.64.04CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Wind Onshore (1)25943120.18CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Wind Offshore (1)251891280.39CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Battery (2)156502CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Pumped Hydro (1)6089200CAPEX (€/MWh stored), FO&M (€/kW)
Transmission - Land (HVAC) (3)6086600(€/MW/km)
Transmission - Subsea (HVDC) (3)60168200(€/MW/km)
Direct Air Capture (4)N/A19907.96(€/tCO2 captured/year)
Power-to-gas: Low temperature water electrolysis PEM (1)10*200104.2CAPEX/FO&M (€/kW), VO&M (€/MWh)
Carbon Transport & Storage (1)N/A231.31(€/tCO2/year)