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Table 4 The standardised generation characteristics applied for all 30 countries. Biomass/waste assumes biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) technology is in place, aligning with International Energy Agency [29] assumptions. Ref [1, 29], [2, 5]

From: Comparing negative emissions and high renewable scenarios for the European power system

Fuel TypeCapacity
(MW)
Start Cost
(€)
Min Stable Factor
(%)
Ramp Rate
(MW/Min)
Efficiency (%)
Biomass/waste30010,00030551% (43% - CCS) (1)
Geothermal heat703000405
Hydro (lakes)1500010
Hydro (run of river)2000010
Natural gas CCGT45080,000402062% (54% - CCS) (1)
Natural gas OCGT10010,000205040% (1)
Nuclear1200120,000605
Oil40075,000405045% (1)
Solids30080,00030548% (41% - CCS) (1)
Pumped hydro200053080% (2)
Demand response100100%
Battery10098%