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Table 3 Preparation of EMF from biomass by heterogeneous catalysts

From: Recent progress in the development of advanced biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural

EntryFeedstockCatalystSolventTemp./°CTime/hYield/%Ref.
1HMF20%HSiW/M-NsEtOH90282.7[40]
2HMF40%HSiW/M-NsEtOH90285.8[40]
3HMF40%HSiW/M-NsEtOH90484.1[40]
4HMF60%HSiW/M-NsEtOH90283.2[40]
5HMF40 wt.%MCM-41-HPWEtOH1001283.4[50]
6Fructose40 wt.%MCM-41-HPWEtOH1001242.9[50]
7HMFAl-MCM-41 (25)EtOH140567[51]
8HMFAl-MCM-41 (50)EtOH140568[51]
9HMFAl-MCM-41 (75)EtOH1405[51]
10GlucoseMFI-Sn/Al zeoliteEtOH140944[52]
11FructoseLys/PWEtOH/DMSO(7:3)2001576.6[53]
12InulinLys/PWEtOH/DMSO(7:3)2001558.5[53]
13SorboseLys/PWEtOH/DMSO(7:3)2001542.4[53]
14SucroseLys/PWEtOH/DMSO(7:3)2001536.5[53]
15HMFK-10 clay-HPWEtOH1001091.5[54]
16FructoseK-10 clay-HPWEtOH1001061.5[54]
17HMFAg1H2PWEtOH1001088.7[55]
18FructoseAg1H2PWEtOH1001069.5[55]
19HMFSilica-SO3HEtOH1001083.8[56]
20FructoseSilica-SO3HEtOH1001063.1[56]
21InulinSilica-SO3HEtOH1001060.7[56]
22HMFFe3O4@SiO2-SO3HEtOH1001089.3[57]
23FructoseFe3O4@SiO2-SO3HEtOH1001072.5[57]
24InulinFe3O4@SiO2-SO3HEtOH1001063.3[57]
25HMFFe3O4@SiO2-SH-Im-HSO4EtOH1001289.6[58]
26FructoseFe3O4@SiO2-SH-Im-HSO4EtOH1202460.4[58]
27SucroseFe3O4@SiO2-SH-Im-HSO4EtOH1202434.4[58]
28InulinFe3O4@SiO2-SH-Im-HSO4EtOH1202456.1[58]
29HMFCellulose sulfuric acidEtOH1001084.4[59]
30HMFCellulose sulfuric acidEtOH1001072.5[59]
31FructoseCellulose sulfuric acidDMSO1000.7593.6a[59]
32FructoseAr-CMSs–SO3HEtOH1001268[60]
33HMFC-SO3HEtOH100671[61]
34HMFC-SO3HEtOH140881b[61]
35HMF30% Glu-Fe3O4-SO3HEtOH80292[62]
36Fructose50% Glu-Fe3O4-SO3HEtOH802481[62]
37Glucose50% Glu-Fe3O4-SO3HEtOH/DMSO1404827[62]
38Inulin50% Glu-Fe3O4-SO3HEtOH/DMSO1002485[62]
39FructoseFe3O4@C-SO3HEtOH/DMSO1001064[63]
40FructoseOMC-SO3HEtOH1402455.7[64]
41InulinOMC-SO3HEtOH1402453.6[64]
42SucroseOMC-SO3HEtOH1402426.8[64]
43HMFLS-SO3HEtOH801185.5[65]
44FructoseLS-SO3HEtOH1101157.3[65]
45GlucoseLS-SO3HEtOH1101577c[65]
46InulinLS-SO3HEtOH1101546.8[65]
  1. aThe yield is HMF yield; b The yield is ethyl levulinate (EL) yield; c The yield is EG yield