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Table 2 Preparation of EMF from biomass by homogeneous catalysts

From: Recent progress in the development of advanced biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural

EntryFeedstockCatalystSolventTemp./°CTime/hYield/%Ref.
1FructoseH2SO4(10 mol%)EtOH1002470[38]
2HMFH2SO4(5 mol%)EtOH752481[38]
3FructoseHCl(5 mol%)EtOH120240[39]
4HMFH3PO4EtOH9021.7[40]
5HMFH2SO4EtOH90279[40]
6FructoseH2SO4EtOH1002463a[41]
7FructoseH2SO4(0.1 wt.%)EtOH/n-hexane120366[42]
8FructoseCuCl2·2H2OEtOH1001212[43]
9FructoseNiCl2·6H2OEtOH100125[43]
10FructoseSnCl4·5H2OEtOH1001223[43]
11FructoseFeCl3EtOH1001228[43]
12FructoseCrCl3·6H2OEtOH1001233[43]
13FructoseFeCl3EtOH/[Bmim]Cl100430.1[44]
14GlucoseAlCl3EtOH/water1600.2533[45]
15HMFAlCl3EtOH100592.9[46]
16FructoseAlCl3EtOH1001171.2[46]
17InulinAlCl3EtOH1001158.2[46]
18GlucoseAlCl3EtOH1001138.4[46]
19StarchAlCl3EtOH1001127.2[46]
20FructoseAlCl3·6H2O/BF3·(Et)2OEtOH110355[47]
21FructoseAlCl3·6H2O/B (OH)3EtOH110322[47]
22FructoseAlCl3·6H2O/NaFEtOH110325.1[47]
23FructoseAlCl3·6H2O/NaClEtOH110328.9[47]
24FructoseAlCl3·6H2O/NaBrEtOH110326.3[47]
25SucroseAlCl3·6H2O/BF3·(Et)2OEtOH110323.9[47]
26InulinAlCl3·6H2O/BF3·(Et)2OEtOH110345.4[47]
  1. aMass yield