Skip to main content

Table 4 Technical parameters of the selected electrochemical technologies

From: Optimization of energy storage and system flexibility in the context of the energy transition: Germany’s power grid as a case study

 Lithium-ionVRFBNaSPHS
Self-discharge (daily)0.20%05%0
Roundtrip efficiency95%80%85%70%
Energy-to-power ratio2376
Annualized life cycle costs (ALCC), €/kW-yr271.8297.7297.7